trafalgar square steckbrief

[46], There are three busts of admirals against the north wall of the square. On 8 February 1886 (also known as "Black Monday"), protesters rallied against unemployment leading to a riot in Pall Mall. [67] In September 2007 Westminster City Council passed further bylaws banning feeding birds on the pedestrianised North Terrace and other pavements in the area. Le lieu est bien connu pour être un espace social et de liberté d'expression1. Elle prend ce nom en 1830[2]. Meilleurs 10 Monuments et statues à Trafalgar Square/Embankment : Consultez les avis et photos de Monuments et statues à Trafalgar Square/Embankment, Trafalgar Square/Embankment (Londres) sur … Oui, la visite de Trafalgar Square doit faire partie de votre programme. Trafalgar Square est une place très célèbre de Westminster à Londres en Angleterre dont le nom commémore la bataille de Trafalgar qui opposa les flottes franco-espagnole et britannique en 1805. In March 1968, a crowd of 10,000 demonstrated against US involvement in the Vietnam War before marching to the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. In July 2003 a huge project to transform Trafalgar Square was completed. [108][109] In 2016, the National Gallery proposed to introduce licensing for such performances. [28] Plinths were provided for sculpture and pedestals for lighting. Its site is occupied by the National Gallery. [25] The Charing Cross Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after. [70]), The Christmas tree is decorated with lights that are switched on at a seasonal ceremony. [65], For many years, revellers celebrating the New Year have gathered in the square despite a lack of celebrations being arranged. [92] A countdown clock was erected in March 2011, although engineering and weather-related faults caused it to stop a day later. The square is named after the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, southwest Spain, although it was not named as such until 1835. One of Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, was set up in the south-west corner of the square in 1858, next to that of Napier. Trafalgar Square was designed by Sir Charles Barry. Elle fut construite en 1830 pour commémorer la victoire de l'armée britannique face aux armées française et espagnole durant la Bataille de Trafalgar. [24] In 2000, the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, suggested replacing the statues with figures more familiar to the general public. [37] A hoarding remained around the base of Nelson's Column for some years and some of its upper scaffolding remained in place. [83] In November 2015 a vigil against the terrorist attacks in Paris was held. [32], Trafalgar Square was opened to the public on 1 May 1844. [72] The switch-on is usually followed by several nights of Christmas carol singing and other performances and events. The lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line,[14] which was rerouted to Westminster in 1999. [57] The fountains were fed from two wells, one in front of the National Gallery and one behind it connected by a tunnel. [26] Around 1835, it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor, commemorating Nelson's victory over the French and Spanish in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars. It contains models of the National Gallery and Nelson's Column alongside miniature lions, fountains and double-decker buses. Bâtiments remarquables et lieux de mémoire, Haut-commissariat du Canada au Royaume-Uni,, Voie à Londres figurant sur le plateau de Monopoly, Page avec coordonnées similaires sur Wikidata, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, À l’angle nord-ouest de la place se trouve la « 4e plinthe », un socle sur lequel des artistes contemporains, choisis par la mairie, peuvent exposer leur travail, depuis 1999, pour une durée de dix-huit mois, Plusieurs ambassades sont installées sur Trafalgar Square, dont les. The north terrace was pedestrianised, so that the square is now linked to the National Gallery. [49], On the south side of Trafalgar Square, on the site of the original Charing Cross, is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur. (Sir Charles Barry was also responsible for the Houses of Parliament. ) [24][29] For Barry, as for Wilkins, a major consideration was increasing the visual impact of the National Gallery, which had been widely criticised for its lack of grandeur. Ces lions de bronze furent exécutés par Edwin Landseer, également peintre animalier, avec l'aide du sculpteur Carlo Marochetti. [29] In 1841 it was decided that two fountains should be included in the layout. [63][64] A stall seller, Bernie Rayner, infamously sold bird seed to tourists at inflated prices. Among the findings were the remains of cave lions, rhinoceroses, straight-tusked elephants and hippopotami. It was constructed in the 1840s. [61] A LED lighting system that can project different combinations of colours on to the fountains was installed to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance and to coincide with the 2012 Summer Olympics. Important roads go from the square: Whitehall goes to Parliament, the Mall goes to Buckingham Palace, and … It was cast in 1633, and placed in its present position in 1678. [22], After 1732, the King's Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables, a large block, built to the designs of William Kent. [1] The site of the present square formerly contained the elaborately designed, enclosed courtyard, King's Mews. After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace. Trafalgar Square is named after Britain’s victory in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. He dealt with the complex sloping site by excavating the main area to the level of the footway between Cockspur Street and the Strand,[30] and constructing a 15-foot (4.6 m) high balustraded terrace with a roadway on the north side, and steps at each end leading to the main level. [43] The great Chartist rally in 1848, a campaign for social reform by the working class began in the square. The square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830. [40], The square has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1996. How did the Trafalgar Square get its name? [50], The two statues on the lawn in front of the National Gallery are the statue of James II (designed by Peter van Dievoet[51] and Laurence Vandermeulen for the studio of Grinling Gibbons)[52] to the west of the portico, and of one George Washington, a replica of a work by Jean-Antoine Houdon, to the east. [36] Each lion weighs seven tons. [28] In April 1840, following Wilkins' death, new plans by Charles Barry were accepted, and construction started within weeks. Since 2014, New Year celebrations have been organised by the Greater London Authority in conjunction with the charity Unicef, who began ticketing the event to control crowd numbers. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. [65], In February 2001, the sale of bird seed in the square was stopped[63] and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons including the use of birds of prey. [44] A bronze equestrian statue of George IV by Sir Francis Chantrey, originally intended to be placed on top of the Marble Arch,[24] was installed on the eastern plinth in 1844, while the other remained empty until late in the 20th century. [19][20][21], The site has been significant since the 13th century. Trafalgar Square (Place de Trafalgar) est l'une des places les plus importantes et animées du centre de Londres. It was well known for its feral pigeons until their removal in the early 21st century. [43] One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. [79] It was billed as a UK base for direct action on climate change and saw various actions and protests stem from the occupation. In July 1840, when its foundations had been laid, he told a parliamentary select committee that "it would in my opinion be desirable that the area should be wholly free from all insulated objects of art". The old ones were presented to the Canadian government and are now located in Ottawa's Confederation Park and Regina's Wascana Centre. The lack of official events was partly because the authorities were concerned that encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding. [9] Originally having roadways on all four sides, traffic travelled in both directions around the square until a one-way clockwise gyratory system was introduced on 26 April 1926. [29] The earth removed was used to level Green Park. Trafalgar Square was designed by Sir Charles Barry as a ceremonial and cultural space. Am Trafalgar Square, einem Muss für alle London-Besucher, steht die Nelson’s Column (ein Monument zum Gedenken an Admiral Horatio Nelson, der 1805 in der Schlacht von Trafalgar sein Leben ließ). [59][60], A programme of restoration was completed by May 2009. As a popular meeting and social … Those of Lord Jellicoe (by Sir Charles Wheeler) and Lord Beatty (by William MacMillan) were installed in 1948 in conjunction with the square's fountains, which also commemorate them. Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. [44] There are two other statues on plinths, both installed during the 19th century: General Sir Charles James Napier by George Cannon Adams in the south-west corner in 1855, and Major-General Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes in the south-east in 1861. [24] Nash died soon after construction started, impeding its progress. In 1987, protesters chained themselves to the tree. It is in the red set alongside the Strand and Fleet Street. The work involved closing the eastbound road along the north side and diverting traffic around the other three sides of the square, demolishing the central section of the northern retaining wall and inserting a wide set of steps to the pedestrianised terrace in front of the National Gallery. [91], On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square hosted the announcement of London's bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics. [47][48] The third, of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham (by Franta Belsky) was unveiled alongside them on 2 April 1967. [2] From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars over France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar. [75], The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's first Aldermaston March, protesting against the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), began in the square in 1958. [10] Works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic.[11]. [53], Two statues erected in the 19th century have since been removed. [113] There is a life scale replica of the square in Bahria Town, Lahore, Pakistan where it is a tourist attraction and centre for local residents. The 169-foot (52 m) Nelson's Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. [77] A large vigil was held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London on Thursday, 7 July 2005. [41], A major 18-month redevelopment of the square led by W.S. Trafalgar Square takes its name from Admiral Nelson's famous (Sieg) victory in the (Schlacht bei Trafalgar) Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. [86], In July 2020, two members of the protest group Animal Rebellion were arrested on suspicion for criminal damage after releasing red dye into the fountains. [15] Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle, Northern and Bakerloo lines, and Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines. [101] In May 2007, the square was grassed over with 2,000 square metres of turf for two days in a campaign by London authorities to promote "green spaces" in the city. Die nächstgelene U-Bahn Station ist Charing Cross aber am einfachsten benutzt man die roten Doppeldeckerbusse da dort die zentrale Haltestelle ist. L'aménagement de la place, conçu par l'architecte John Nash, commence dans les années 1820[3] à l'emplacement des anciennes écuries royales. All the stonework was of Aberdeen granite. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year's Eve. La station de métro la plus proche est Charing Cross, où circulent les trains des lignes Bakerloo  Northern. [23], In 1826 the Commissioners of H.M. Woods, Forests and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, and as far east as St Martin's Lane. [112], National Heroes Square in Bridgetown, Barbados, was named Trafalgar Square in 1813, before its better-known British namesake. They also employed a hawk to keep them away. Atkins with Foster and Partners as sub-consultants was completed in 2003. Charing Cross Road passes between the National Gallery and the church. The design was approved, but received widespread objections from the public. … Since 2003, a firework display centred on the London Eye and South Bank of the Thames has been provided as an alternative. La colonne est entourée de quatre sculptures de lions protégeant la statue de l'officier, ajoutées en 1867. The construction includes two lifts for disabled access, public toilets and a café. [70], The tree is selected by the Head Forester from Oslo's municipal forest and shipped, across the North Sea to the Port of Felixstowe, then by road to Trafalgar Square. The First Commissioner of Woods and Forests welcomed the plan because the fountains reduced the open space available for public gatherings and reduced the risk of riotous assembly. [114], Public space and tourist attraction in central London, Hitler had specifically requested that all of, List of public art in Trafalgar Square and the vicinity, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, "A Cultural Introduction to the Languages of Europe", "The convenient fiction of who owns priceless treasure", "Trafalgar Square (Hansard, 27 November 2003)", "TRAVEL ADVISORY; Boon to Pedestrians In Central London", "Take a behind-the-scenes tour of the disused parts of Charing Cross tube station", "Trafalgar Square and the National Gallery", "Suggestions for Trafalgar Square's Vacant Plinth", "Mayor attacks generals in battle of Trafalgar Square", "Trafalgar Square fountain spurts to new heights", "The pigeons have gone, but visitors are flocking to Trafalgar Square", "Trafalgar Square tree lighting ceremony", "Trafalgar Square sparkles blue as Christmas tree lights go on", "Man Takes Chain Saw to Trafalgar Square Tree, but Tannenbaum Stands", "On This Day – 17 March – 1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent", "The Committee of 100: Sparking a new left", "COP OUT CAMP OUT Âť Camp for Climate Action", "UK Indymedia – Climate protestors scale Canadian Embassy and deface flag", "UK Indymedia – Climate Camp Trafalgar- Ice Bear action", "UK Indymedia – Thur Dec 17 protest outside Danish Embassy, London", Wikinews:Battle for Trafalgar Square, London as violence breaks out between demonstrators and riot police, "Sea Cadets in Battle of Trafalgar parade", "Armistice Day: Nation remembers war dead", "Trafalgar Square fountains: Two arrested over red dye protest", "Vegan activists turn Trafalgar Square fountains blood red", "London 2012 Olympics: Trafalgar Square countdown clock stops", "London gets ready to welcome back the Tour de France on Monday", "Harry Potter premiere: Stars and fans bid tearful goodbye", "Lego's Next Architecture Set Will Be London's Trafalgar Square", "Buskers in the West End could need licences after outcry at noise", "National Gallery plans to demand Trafalgar Square buskers leave so it can create 'one of London's great parks, Official website of Trafalgar Square on the Mayor of London's website, Trafalgar Square webcam from, Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges,, Cultural infrastructure completed in 1845, Tourist attractions in the City of Westminster, Grade I listed parks and gardens in London, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz place identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 15:39. Trafalgar Square used to be famous as a home for thousands of feral pigeons. Nelson's contribution was remembered with Nelson’s Column, a key feature of the square. A popular activity was to feed them but this made them even more of a pest. [74], The square has become a social and political focus for visitors and Londoners, developing over its history from "an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes, into the country's foremost place politique", as historian Rodney Mace has written. Depuis le début du XXe siècle, Trafalgar Square est le principal lieu de rassemblement des personnes se réclamant du droit démocratique de la libre expression au Royaume-Uni, tentant d'attirer le citoyen sur un sujet censé influencer l'opinion publique, tout comme Speakers' Corner. [76], Throughout the 1980s, a continuous anti-apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House. The new centrepieces, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, were memorials to Lord Jellicoe and Lord Beatty, although busts of the admirals, initially intended to be placed in the fountain surrounds were placed against the northern retaining wall when the project was completed after the Second World War. A competition was held and won by the architect William Railton, who proposed a 218-foot-3-inch (66.52 m) Corinthinan column topped by a statue of Nelson and guarded by four sculpted lions. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars over France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar. [70] In 1990, a man sawed into the tree with a chainsaw a few hours before a New Year's Eve party was scheduled to take place. Trafalgar Square (/trəˈfælɡər/ trə-FAL-gər) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. [2], The name "Trafalgar" is a Spanish word of Arabic origin, derived from either Taraf al-Ghar (طرف الغار 'cape of the cave/laurel')[3][4][5] or Taraf al-Gharb (طرف الغرب 'cape of the west'). [84], Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar. [39], Barry was unhappy about Nelson's Column being placed in the square. Viele gute Restaurants befinden sich rund um den Trafalgar Square und er ist ein beliebter Ort um London zu erkunden. [2][27], After the clearance, development progressed slowly. Trafalgar Square est situé au nord de l'intersection de Charing Cross, où se rejoignent Whitehall (rejoignant Parliament Square), The Strand, The Mall (rejoignant le palais de Buckingham via l'Admiralty Arch), Cockspur Street et Northumberland Avenue, tandis qu’au nord de la place débouchent Pall Mall East (prolongeant Pall Mall) et Duncannon Street. Trafalgar Square is in the heart of London. He was arrested and the tree was repaired by tree surgeons who removed gouged sections from the trunk while the tree was suspended from a crane. [45], In the 21st century, the empty plinth in the north-west corner of the square, the "Fourth Plinth", has been used to show specially commissioned temporary artworks. [70] (Besides war-time support, Norway's Prince Olav and the country's government lived in exile in London throughout the war. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 21 novembre 2020 à 19:57. [104], Trafalgar Square is one of the squares on the standard British Monopoly Board. [33], Nelson's Column was planned independently of Barry's work. [13] Also on the east is South Africa House, and facing it across the square is Canada House. The National Gallery was built on the north side between 1832 and 1838 to a design by William Wilkins,[24] and in 1837 the Treasury approved Wilkins' plan for the laying out of the square, but it was not put into effect. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999. It was renamed in 1999 to commemorate national heroes of Barbados. [70] A Norway spruce (or sometimes a fir) is presented by Norway's capital city, Oslo as London's Christmas tree, a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II. The site around Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 1200s. Une curiosité de Trafalgar Square est qu'on y a longtemps trouvé le poste de police le plus petit de Londres, dans un petit bâtiment en forme de lanterne situé au coin sud-est de la place. [89] The square was used by the England national rugby union team on 9 December 2003 to celebrate their victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup,[90] and on 13 September 2005 for the England national cricket team's victory in the Ashes series. [34] The column was completed and the statue raised in November 1843. A larger riot ("Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887. Sculpted by William Calder Marshall, it showed Jenner sitting in a chair in a relaxed pose, and was inaugurated at a ceremony presided over by Prince Albert. Aller à Londres et ne pas voir Trafalgar Square, c’est le sentiment d’avoir oublié quelque chose ! Construction went ahead beginning in 1840 but with the height reduced to 145 feet 3 inches (44.27 m). The name "Royal Mews" comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting; "mew" is an old word for this. It was moved to Kensington Gardens in 1862. [111] Trafalgar Square in Scarborough, North Yorkshire gives its name to the Trafalgar Square End at the town's North Marine Road cricket ground. For centuries, distances measured from Charing Cross have served as location markers. [43] The latter was a gift from the Commonwealth of Virginia, installed in 1921. [80][81][82], In March 2011, the square was occupied by a crowd protesting against the UK Budget and proposed budget cuts. Surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields Church to the east. [24], In the late-1930s it was decided to replace the pump and the centrepieces of the fountains. Son nom commémore la bataille de Trafalgar qui opposa les flottes franco-espagnole et britannique en 1805[1]. La place est achevée dans les années 1840, époque à laquelle Charles Barry fait construire la terrasse nord de la National Gallery. [73] On the twelfth night of Christmas, the tree is taken down for recycling. [87][88], In the 21st century, Trafalgar Square has been the location for several sporting events and victory parades. Westminster City Council threatened to abandon the event to save £5,000 in 1980 but the decision was reversed. [9], London Underground's Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square. [56], In 1841, following suggestions from the local paving board, Barry agreed that two fountains should be installed to counteract the effects of reflected heat and glare from the asphalt surface. Water was pumped to the fountains by a steam engine housed in a building behind the gallery. [105], Several scenes in the dystopian future of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four take place in Trafalgar Square, which was renamed "Victory Square" by the story's totalitarian regime and dominated by the giant statue of Big Brother which replaced Nelson. So, in 2003 then London Mayor Ken Livingstone declared war on the pigeons and banned feeding them (and the selling of feed near the square). [59], The square was once famous for feral pigeons and feeding them was a popular activity. Das Nachtleben am Trafalgar Square … [93] In 2007, it hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France[94] and was part of the course for subsequent races. La légende raconte que les lions ont été faits à partir du métal de la flotte française vaincue par Nelson et que l'on a placé la statue de celui-ci en hauteur de façon qu'il puisse voir sa flotte amarrée à Portsmouth. Although Britain won, war hero Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson was killed during the battle on his ship, HMS Victory. [18], Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial period. Prominent buildings facing the square include the National Gallery, St Martin-in-the-Fields, Canada House, and South Africa House. [58] The fountains cost almost £50,000. Le lieu est bien connu pour être un espace social et de liberté d'expression. Fans camped in Trafalgar Square for up to three days before the premiere, despite torrential rain. [69], A Christmas ceremony has been held in the square every year since 1947. The festivity is open to the public and attracts a large number of people. [42][43], Barry's scheme provided two plinths for sculptures on the north side of the square. [17], A point in Trafalgar Square is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and when measuring distances from the capital. [38] Landseer, the sculptor, had asked for a lion that had died at the London Zoo to be brought to his studio. In June 2002, 12,000 people gathered to watch the England national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected for the occasion. It serves as a refuge, and a major traffic intersection. [30] The square was originally surfaced with tarmacadam, which was replaced with stone in the 1920s. His plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy. [106], The square has seen controversy over busking and street theatre, which have attracted complaints over noise and public safety. [100] It was used for filming several sketches and a cartoon backdrop in the BBC comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus. Slowly, the square began to depopulate and now it’s pretty … The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons. A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day. It was the first film premiere ever to be held there. [13] At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson, who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar. [35], The last of the bronze reliefs on the column's pedestals was not completed until May 1854, and the four lions, although part of the original design, were only added in 1867. [43] A ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests.

Heide Park Besucherzahlen, 60 Jahre Und Kein Bisschen Weise Dieter Hallervorden, Max Giesinger - Nie Stärker Als Jetzt Text, Maven Deploy To Tomcat, Chris Roberts Ehefrau, Dbd Player List, Altgriechischer Dichter Und Arzt Kreuzworträtsel, Hotel Am Paulusbogen Parken, Frauentausch Teilnehmer Heute,